Tanzania’s Water Challenges

Tanzania has numerous and diverse water resources, but a variable and changing climate, limited technological choices, and constraints on infrastructure and investment present a challenge for effective water resources management (WRM) development. With an extremely low level of water storage capacity, and water availability that is highly variable, the country faces major constraints in securing enough water for its environmental, social, and economic needs. Between 2002 and 2015, there was a 60% decline in renewable freshwater resources available annually per person. Continued population growth and an increase in extreme flood and drought events are likely to reduce water availability even further.

Approach and Results

The Tanzania 2030 WRG program focuses its efforts behind three priority thematic areas: water-use efficiency, water sources protection, and cross-sectoral collaboration. A hydro-economic analysis helped identify these critical challenges and also led to the creation of one national-level platform, the National Multi-Stakeholder Platform, and two geographic-focused MSPs, the Kilimanjaro Water Stewardship Platform (KWSP) and the Great Ruaha Restoration Campaign (GRRC).

Through a variety of projects, these MSPs are already demonstrating models for effective multi-stakeholder water resources management that can be replicated elsewhere in the country. Catchment-level interventions, involving public, private, and civil society stakeholders, aim to reduce the water gap in these important basins. An initiative to help smallholder farmers access markets and financing has gained ground, and will help modernize irrigation systems throughout Tanzania. Finally, a national, open-source, online Water Resources Information Center is being developed to provide access to the latest data and analysis to stakeholders in both the public and private sectors.


The Ministry of Water in Tanzania has been instrumental in leading efforts to bring together a variety of representatives from civil society, the private sector, and the government. Some partners include the Confederation of Tanzanian Industries, Diageo (Serengeti Breweries), AB InBev (Tanzania Breweries), Bakhresa Group, Tanga Cement, the Nature Conservancy Tanzania, SAGCOT, TaWaSaNet, TAHA, UKAid, IWaSP/GIZ, NMB, and ACACIA.

Multi-Stakeholder Platform Documents